In the U.S. rules vary from state to state. In Idaho, Nebraska, Indiana, North Carolina, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas students must play on the team that matches their birth certificate, have undergone surgery or have had extended hormone therapy. The NCAA requires one year of testosterone suppression. In February 2019 Representative Ilhan Omar (D-MN) asked Minnesota Attorney General Keith Ellison to investigate USA Powerlifting over its rule barring biological males from competing in women’s events. In 2016 the International Olympic committee ruled that transgender athletes can compete in the Olympics without undergoing sex reassignment surgery. In 2018 the International Association of Athletics Federations, track’s governing body, ruled that women who have more than 5 nano-mols per liter of testosterone in their blood—like South African sprinter and Olympic gold medalist Caster Semenya—must either compete against men, or take medication to reduce their natural testosterone levels. The IAAF stated that women in the five-plus category have a “difference of sexual development.” The ruling cited a 2017 study by French researchers as proof that female athletes with testosterone closer to men do better in certain events: 400 meters, 800 meters, 1,500 meters, and the mile. "Our evidence and data show that testosterone, either naturally produced or artificially inserted into the body, provides significant performance advantages in female athletes," said IAAF President Sebastian Coe in a statement.
Yes, but only for those participating in non-professional sports and whose hormone levels are equivalent to those in the gender category in which they compete. I believe that transgender women should not be allowed to compete on gender-based teams in high-stakes competitions such as the Olympics. According to current research, even after undergoing hormone therapy, trans women retain an advantage in muscle mass and strength. These long-term studies clearly show that transgender women would have a competitive advantage when participating in the female category of sport.
Individual athletic organizations should come up with their own rules on how to allow transgender athletes to participate without giving them an unfair advantage/disadvantage. The governing bodies should also have oversight committees to ensure no individual or class of athlete is unfairly burdened by these rules or policies.
If a trans athlete can prove that them competing will not create an unfair advantage to themselves, then yes. Otherwise competitions reserve the right to refuse them and force them to compete in their biological sex group.
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